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「WIKI百科」圣殿骑士团词条自译-2

我滴婊贝……瑞士银行也要尊称一声哥🙆

梨盘子HT:


【崛起部分后三段】


【渣翻,如有错误,还请尽快指出】

拥有着明确使命和充足财力的圣殿骑士团迅速壮大起来。骑士团经常担任十字军东征主要战役中的先锋部队,他们骑在马上的重装骑士在主要作战部队之前冲向敌军,以求冲破对方的阵线。1177年的蒙吉萨战役①是他们最为人称道的胜利之一,约500名圣殿骑士配合近千名步兵战胜了萨拉丁超过26000人的大军。
【圣殿骑士是真正无所畏惧的勇士,于各个方面都无可指摘。灵魂一如盔甲所护之肉体般,得信仰之甲庇护。因而他们拥有双重保护,面对何种敌人都不曾退却。
——圣伯尔纳“De Laude Novae Militae” 出自《新骑士颂》②】
尽管圣殿骑士团最初的定位是军事方面的,但实际上,相对而言作战人员仅占成员的很少一部分。骑士团中的其他成员在后勤与打理金融系统之上发挥着自己的作用。圣殿骑士虽矢志守贫,但他们却掌管着一笔在直接捐赠之外所得的巨大财富。有意参与十字军东征的贵族可能会在他出发远征之时将全部财产交由圣殿骑士团保管。骑士团以该方法聚积起的资产遍布基督教诸国和海外之地。他们还于1150年推出了“信用凭据”,用来为踏上旅途的朝圣者服务:朝圣者可在出发前将自己的贵重物品存放在当地的圣殿骑士团分部,并领取凭据以表明该物品归其本人所有,在到达圣地后则可凭此提取相当于他们先前寄存财物等额价值的钱款。这一创新性的方法可以说是银行业的一种早期形式,并有可能是最先正式运用支票的系统。它更有效地保障了朝圣者的人身安全,减少了他们成为盗贼目标的风险,同时也有助于骑士团建立起自己的金库。
以捐赠与业务为基础(※),圣殿骑士团在整个基督教国家内构建起自己的金融网络,他们在欧洲与中东地区拥有大片地产;他们买进并经营农场和葡萄园,修建教堂与城堡,同时也涉足制造业及进出口事务;他们拥有自己的船队,甚至一度控制塞浦路斯全岛——可以说,圣殿骑士团也许是世界上第一个跨国组织。
【注释】
①蒙吉萨战役(Battle of Montgisard):耶路撒冷王国的基督教军队与萨拉丁领导的穆/斯/林军队之间爆发的战役。在此次战役中,年仅16岁的“麻风王”鲍德温四世崭露头角,以少胜多大胜萨拉丁,展示了他的军事才能(鲍德温四世就是电影《天国王朝》里那个戴面具的国王啦,当然电影造型为艺术处理过的,真正历史上的他身为国王,是拒绝戴面具的。麻风病是什么病可自行百度)

②De Laude Nouae Militae 为伯纳德对圣殿骑士的颂词,在这首诗里他声称圣殿骑士是一种更高级斗争——即杀人,的拥护者。这在基督徒眼里是种魔鬼行径,现在却被反了过来,换句话说,他们是在杀死邪恶本身,这样就是值得赞颂的了。
“圣地,”伯纳德写到,“在耶稣的一生里留下深刻印记。还有伯利恒,拿撒勒,约旦河,圣殿山,以及被耶稣曾上刑,埋葬,复活的地方所包围的圣墓教堂。而圣殿骑士就是这些神圣场所的守护者,甚至扮演着为朝圣者指引方向的角色,这都是因为他们的亲近和对耶稣生平足迹的熟知。这些骑士还有优越条件和责任去探寻更深处的真相,也就是这些神圣场所的内在精神意义。”
伯纳德的颂词De Lauda的含义是基于圣殿骑士在强化他们使命的过程中能明白自己所扮演的角色的全部意义上的,而这早已超出他们警卫朝圣者道路上【包括保护圣地】的安全这个主要任务的范围了。


出自 Michael Haag The origins of the Templars 《The Tragedy of the Templars》(感谢斯廷仙女翻译)

(※)处存疑
【原文如下】
With its clear mission and ample resources, the Order grew rapidly. Templars were often the advance shock troops in key battles of the Crusades, as the heavily armoured knights on their warhorses would set out to charge at the enemy, ahead of the main army bodies, in an attempt to break opposition lines. One of their most famous victories was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, where some 500 Templar knights helped several thousand infantry to defeat Saladin's army of more than 26,000 soldiers.

A Templar Knight is truly a fearless knight, and secure on every side, for his soul is protected by the armour of faith, just as his body is protected by the armour of steel. He is thus doubly armed, and need fear neither demons nor men."

Bernard de Clairvaux, c. 1135,
De Laude Novae Militae—In Praise of the New Knighthood

Although the primary mission of the Order was military, relatively few members were combatants. The others acted in support positions to assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure. The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman who was interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away. Accumulating wealth in this manner throughout Christendom and the Outremer, the Order in 1150 began generating letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land: pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value. This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques; it improved the safety of pilgrims by making them less attractive targets for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.

Based on this mix of donations and business dealing, the Templars established financial networks across the whole of Christendom. They acquired large tracts of land, both in Europe and the Middle East; they bought and managed farms and vineyards; they built churches and castles; they were involved in manufacturing, import and export; they had their own fleet of ships; and at one point they even owned the entire island of Cyprus. The Order of the Knights Templar arguably qualifies as the world's first multinational corporation.

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  1. 伽大肋納梨盘子HT 转载了此文字
    我滴婊贝……瑞士银行也要尊称一声哥🙆
  2. 天国养老院梨盘子HT 转载了此文字

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